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Market Research Procedure

Market Research ProcedureTo carry out a research or research, procedures and systematics are needed in presenting the results of the research. In general, the procedures and systematics for presenting research results include formulating problems, formulating hypotheses, determining research methods, determining research variables, determining research data, data collection, data processing, data analysis, conclusions and suggestions, and presenting research reports.

1. Determine the research topic

The first step before doing research is to determine the research topic itself. Without having a research topic, of course, there is no research or research becomes blurred and not focused on one of the things being researched. So it is important to determine the research topic before going far ahead with regard to the research.

Examples of marketing research topics include:
  • Measuring consumer loyalty to the brand x Purchase behavior of goods in times of inflation
  • Measuring public perception of a shopping area
  • Assess marketing planning activities
  • Measuring consumer tendencies to explore products and information
  • Testing consumer responses to different color brochures
  • Identify spontaneous buying behavior
  • Assess the manager's ability to carry out marketing activities.
  • Measuring the benefits of television advertising
  • Consumer perceptions of restaurants and abroad.
2. Problem formulation

After determining the marketing research topic that if you really mastered it, the next step was to describe the background of why you chose that marketing research topic? In the description, the reasons for choosing this topic are stated and the arguments that can strengthen it.

The more arguments put forward will be able to contribute to strengthening the marketing research topic that has been chosen. Then after the description of the background of the problem has been completed, the next step is to determine the formulation of the research problem.

3. Formulation of hypotheses

The next step after formulating the main problem and a marketing research topic, is the formulation of research hypotheses. This hypothesis is a temporary answer based on the main problem formulation that has been prepared. So that the truth of a hypothesis still has to be tested through statistical tests, whether the proposed hypothesis is true or not. The number of hypotheses proposed is adjusted to the many formulations of the problem.

4. Determine the research method

Determine the research needed to help solve the problems in the topic. In general, research methods use statistical tools and tests if the research data is in the form of numbers, so it is quantitative. However, in addition to statistical tools and tests, qualitative research can also be carried out, in the form of analyzing the characteristics of the data without going through a quality test. The quality of a qualitative research really depends on the validity of the data from the observations on the object being studied.

The more valid and detailed, the more it contributes to the quality of research results, on the other hand the data obtained from observations are less or invalid and not supported by strong arguments, will result in a reduced quality of qualitative research. Research methods are qualitative, for example with SWOT analysis (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity, Treath), Map Analysis. The research method is quantitative, mainly using statistical test tools, such as hypothesis testing, chi-square test, analysis of variance (Anova) test, regression coefficient test, partial and simultaneous correlation coefficient test, and nonparametric statistical tests.

5. Determine research variables

In determining the research variables, it is adjusted to the topic under study, because the necessary research variables are contained in the topic.

6. Determine research data

Based on the research variables above, it means that we can determine the research data. If the variable is related to public perception, the research data is also about public perception.

The amount of research data depends on the needs of the respondents, in this case the people who are the research sample. If it is related to sales, the research data can be in the form of sales volume based on sales period, sales volume based on sales area, or sales volume based on sales. Therefore, research data is highly dependent on the variables studied.

7. Data collection method

To collect research data, there are two methods, namely qualitative data collection methods, and quantitative data collection methods. (Istijanto, 2005)

a. Qualitative data collection methods

The methods used to collect qualitative data include interviews, focus groups and projection techniques. Interview is a method used to obtain direct, in-depth, unstructured, and individual information. In an interview, a respondent is asked questions by the interviewer to express his feelings, motivations, attitudes, or beliefs about a marketing topic. The current form of interviewing allows the interviewer and interviewee not to meet physically. Utilization of technology in the field of technology and the internet is able to make interviewers and participants interact with each other in front of a computer monitor or television. This will certainly provide efficiency because it allows faster information acquisition with a wider reach.

Focus Group is a form of data collection through group discussions in marketing. Where the focus group discussions are small groups of 8-10 people who are selected to discuss certain topics without using a structured questionnaire. People involved in focus group discussions are expected to have knowledge or skills in their field so that their views can really provide in-depth input for managers. As with interviews that are able to take advantage of technological advances, in this focus group discussion it is possible that members do not meet directly in the discussion. The form of focus group discussions through interactive discussions using the Internet has begun to be commonly applied in research so that it can save costs incurred for participant transportation and facility costs.

The projection technique is a method used to obtain data by encouraging respondents to express their feelings, motivations, attitudes or beliefs about a marketing topic with indirect and unstructured questions (Istijanto, 2005). Indirect understanding here means that participants are free to project or interpret anything that arises in their thoughts or feelings related to the object or topic presented by the researcher.

b. Quantitative data collection method

Quantitative data collection can be done by several methods, namely survey, observation and experiment (Istijanto, 2005).

Surveys are a widely used method, especially in marketing research. Information is collected by asking people through a structured list of questions. With surveys, researchers aim to obtain information such as preferences, attitudes, or opinions of respondents expressed in answering questions. The survey aims to cover a large number of people so that the survey results can be viewed as representative of the population or a generalization.

Surveys generally involve many respondents, depending on the objectives and limitations of the research. Observation is a method of collecting data by observing and recording behavior patterns of people, objects or events in a systematic way. In this case the researcher does not communicate or ask questions with the person or object being observed so that the person being observed does not realize that they are being studied. This is done so that the observed object does not change its behavior during the research process.

Observations can be made by observing several things, including physical behavior, consuming behavior, changes in facial expressions, objects. The observation method offers advantages in the form of real or actual behavior and the observed person so that no manipulation occurs. This advantage may not be owned by the previous method.

Experiments are research that attempts to manipulate one or more causal variables, then measure the effects and manipulations of one or more dependent variables. Experiments allow researchers to isolate other variables outside the causal variables so that these effects are assessed as a result of changes in the causal variables used in the research.

By looking at the conditions when the experiment was run, experiments can be categorized into two types, namely laboratory experiments and field experiments. Laboratory experiments are carried out in unnatural conditions because the experiments are not carried out in a real market, while field experiments use real conditions.

8. Data processing

At this stage, all research data that has been obtained, then data sorting is carried out, namely selecting data that meets research requirements.

This is done because there is a possibility of incoming data, some of which may not meet the research requirements that have been determined previously. Suppose it takes 100 data, it means we have to find more than 100 data. So that when there is data that does not meet the requirements there is still other data. The research data obtained are then collected into certain tables to facilitate data processing. While data processing can be done with manual systems and or computerized systems. To adapt to the times, it is better to use a computerized system with several advantages, including faster, more precise, more detailed calculations. Data processing can use SPSS computer programs or other statistical programs.

9. Data analysis

After processing the data both manually and computerized, the result is a research output, where the output must be analyzed to get an overview of the results achieved as an effort to solve research problems. By analyzing the data, we know whether the research problem can be solved in accordance with the expectations of the research hypothesis or not according to the expectations of the research hypothesis.

10. Conclusions and suggestions

The final part and research procedure is to draw conclusions and suggestions based on the results of data analysis. Conclusions are drawn purely from the results of data analysis after being studied through statistical and/or non-statistical tests (qualitative in nature). Whatever the results of data analysis can be a source of problem solving in a research. In research, it is also necessary to provide input in the form of suggestions.

Suggestions contain what steps should be taken for the future based on data analysis.

11. Submission of research reports

After all research procedures have been passed, in the sense that the research has been completed, the next step is presented in the form of a research report that is systematically compiled based on scientific writing principles, such as the marketing research procedure above. In presenting the research report, it is also necessary to give other arguments to make it more interesting, such as photos of the object under study, charts, tables and other pictures related to research (Sunyoto, 2012).